Gasoline Direct Injection – Performance and Efficiency For Vehicles of Today and Tomorrow
Q. Why are engines changing?
Transportation accounts for more than half of global oil consumption and a third of all US greenhouse gas emissions. Regulations have been passed that require the OEMs and Oil Companies to reduce these harmful emissions:
Introducing vehicles with improved fuel efficiency is the most direct route to meeting these regulations. Therefore vehicle manufacturers in all global regions are rapidly moving to Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engines as a next generation technology platform.
Q. What does GDI engine technology offer?
The GDI engine delivers reduced CO2 emissions, superior fuel economy and enhanced performance by:
The GDI engine operates by injecting fuel directly into the combustion chamber, where the air and fuel are mixed prior to ignition. In Port Fuel Injected (PFI) engines, the fuel is injected into the intake manifold and mixed with the air prior to entering the combustion chamber.
The GDI gains in fuel efficiency and performance are achieved through the higher compression ratio associated with charge cooling and the precise control over the amount and timing of the fuel injected. The injection is varied according to the engine load conditions.
Q. Where do you find GDI?
GDI was developed for use in aircrafts during World War II with the first automotive direct injection system being introduced in 1952. However, it wasn’t until the late 1990’s that the engine technology became commercially available, when Mitsubishi led the drive and brought into use the acronym - GDI.
Since then, the increasing need to offer vehicles with improved fuel economy and lower emissions has made GDI the engine technology of choice for the leading OEMs. It is expected that by the end of 2018, more than half of all new gasoline vehicles produced will be GDI.
Q. What impact does injector fouling have on GDI engine performance?
As GDI penetrates the market the fuel retailer needs to ensure that their fuel quality matches the needs of the engine. It is essential that the critical engine parts are protected against performance degradation.
The correct distribution of the fuel/air mixture in the cylinder is essential for optimal performance of the engine across all operating conditions.
Engine designers utilize wall guided and, more recently, spray guided systems to ensure proper formation of a combustible fuel/air mixture. The guided spray systems rely on the correct functioning of the fuel injection system.
Above: Clean (left) vs. Dirty (right) Injectors
Formation of deposits in the fuel injection system can adversely impact the fuel spray pattern and reduce the levels of fuel being injected into the engine, leading to:
Increased greenhouse gas emissions
Increased regulated emissions
Increased fuel consumption
Q. How does Afton’s gasoline additive technology keep GDI engines performing as designed?
Since the launch of GDI, Afton has been working with OEMs, FIE Manufacturers and Oil Companies to develop additive solutions which deliver optimal performance to GDI engines.
Afton has specifically developed additives that ensure performance in both GDI and PFI operating conditions. These unique solutions are supported by Afton’s US Patent # 7,491,248 and European Patent # 1250404. The additives clean up any harmful deposits that form on the injectors and deliver sustained power, increased fuel economy and reduced harmful emissions.
Continuous use of gasoline containing Afton fuel additives will prevent the formation of injector deposits that can alter the fuel delivery and rob your vehicle of optimal fuel efficiency and performance.
The global push to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and improve fuel consumption has led OEMs to rapidly accelerate their launch of GDI technology which has demonstrated improvements in both of these areas.
Afton has worked in cooperation with OEMs, Fuel Injector Equipment Manufacturers and Oil Companies to develop advanced fuel additives which are effective in controlling the unique deposit control requirements of GDI engine technology and to ensure that these engines run at their optimal efficiency.
To learn more about all things Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) and Afton’s involvement in GDI Fuel additive technology, visit the Afton GDI Headquarters.