Research Bibliography: HiTEC 3000 Series of mmt® Fuel Additive
Health & Environment Studies
DeHuff, G.L. (1973). Manganese in the ecosystem. In: Medical and biologic effects of environmental pollutants: manganese. National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C.
Moore, W., Hysell, D., Miller, R., Malanchuk, M., Burkart, J. & Hinners, R. (1975). Toxicologic evaluations of fuel additive methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT®). Society of Automotive Engineers. (SAE Paper 750927).
Moran, J.B. (1975). The Environmental implications of manganese as an alternate antiknock. Society of Automotive Engineers. (SAE Paper 750926).
Ter Haar, G.L., Griffing, M.E., Brandt, M., Obering, D. & Kapron, M. (1975). Methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl as an antiknock: composition and fate of manganese exhaust products. Journal of the Air Pollution Control Association, 25, pp. 858-860Pierson, W.R., McKee, D.E., Brachaczek, W.W., & Butler, J.W. (1978). Methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl: effect of manganese emissions from vehicles on the road. Journal of the Air Pollution Control Association, 29, p. 692.
Moore, W., Hysell, D., Miller, R., Malanchuk, M., Hinners, R., Yong, Y. & Stara, J. (1975). Exposure of laboratory animals to atmospheric manganese from automotive emissions. Environmental Research, 9, pp. 274-284.
Coulston, F. & Griffin, T. (1976). Inhalation toxicology of airborne particulate manganese in rhesus monkeys. EPA contract 68-02-0170, Institute of Comparative and Human Toxicology, Albany Medical College, NY and Holloman Air Force Base, NM.
Health and Welfare Canada. (1978). Methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT®): an assessment of the human health implications of its use as a gasoline additive. Environmental
Health Directorate. Ottawa, Ontario 78-EHD-21.
Hinderer, R.K. (1979). Toxicity studies of methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT®).
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, 40, pp. 164-167.
Roberson, R.L., Impact of HiTEC® 3000 on ambient air manganese concentration & population exposure and dose.
Ulrich, C.E., Rinehart, W., & Brandt, M. (1979). Evaluation of the chronic inhalation toxicity of a manganese oxide aerosol III - pulmonary function, electromyograms, limb tremor and tissue manganese data. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, 40, pp. 349-353.
Coe, M., Cruz, J.R., & Van Loon, J.C. (1980). Determination of methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl by gas chromatography-atomic absorption chromatography at mg/m3 levels in air samples. Analytica Chimica Acta. 120, pp. 171-176.
Ontario Ministry of the Environment. 1982-1992. Air Quality in Ontario.
Dynamac Corporation. (1983). Chemical hazard information profile: methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl. EPA Contract No. 68-01-6239, draft report submitted to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Assessment Division, Washington, D.C.
Cooper ,W.C. (1984). The health implications of increased manganese in the environment resulting from the combustion of fuel additives: a review of the literature. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, 14, pp. 23-46.
United States Environmental Protection Agency. (1984). Health Assessment Document for Manganese. EPA 600/8-83-013F.
United States Environmental Protection Agency. (1985). Decision not to regulate manganese under the Clean Air Act. Federal Register, 50, p. 32627.
Garrec, J.P. & Kudo, A. (1985). Distribution and accumulation of methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT®-antidetonating agent) in an experimental freshwater ecosystem. Environmental Pollution, Series B, 10, pp. 173-188.
Canadian General Standards Board (CGSB). (1986). An assessment of the effect of MMT® on light-duty vehicle exhaust emissions in the Canadian environment. Working Group of the Canadian General Standards Board, Gasoline and Alternative Fuels Committee. Ottawa, Ontario.
Environment Canada. (1987). National inventory of sources and emissions of manganese - 1984. EPS 5/MM/1, Conservation and Protection, Environmental Analysis Branch, Ottawa, Ontario.
McGinley, P.A., Morris, J.B., Clay, R.J., & Gianutsos, G. (1987). Disposition and toxicity of methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl in the rat. Toxicology Letters, 36, pp. 137-145.
Abbott, P.J. (1987). Methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT®) in petrol: the toxicological issues. The Science of the Total Environment, 67, pp. 247-255.
Hurley, L.S. & Keen, C.L. (1987). Manganese. In: Mertz, W. (editor) Trace elements in human animal nutrition. Academic Press, New York, pp. 185-223.
Jaques, A.P. (1987). National Inventory of Sources and Emissions of Manganese - 1984. Conservation and Protection, Environmental Analysis Branch, Environment Canada Report EPS 5/MM/1.
Davis, D.W., Hsiao, K., Ingels, R., & Shikiya, J. (1988). Origins of manganese in air particulates in California. Journal of the Air Pollution Control Association, 38, pp. 1152-1157.
Donaldson, J. (1988). Manganese and human health. Manganese in the Canadian Environment. Associate Committee on Scientific Criteria for Environmental Quality, National Research Council Canada, NRCC number 26193.
United States Environmental Protection Agency. (1990). Comments on the use of methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl in unleaded gasoline. Office of Research and Development. Research Triangle Park, NC.
Roth, H.D. (1990). Analysis of health risk from the addition of HiTEC® 3000 to unleaded gasoline at a concentration of .03125 grams of manganese per gallon of gasoline. Roth and Associates.
Systems Application International. (1991). Analysis of EPA manganese emission testing data. Appendix 11 of the July 12th 1991 waiver application by Ethyl Corporation to the U.S. EPA.
Anderson, G.E., Rosenbaum, A.S. & Gardner, L. A. (1991). Modelling of manganese exposure in mobile populations. Systems Applications International, San Rafael, CA.
Ethyl Corporation. (1991). An emission study of HiTEC® 3000 Performance Additive: the manganese balance project. Appendix 12 of July 12th, 1991 waiver application to the U.S. EPA.
Communaute Urbaine de Montreal (CUM). (1993). Rapport Annuel de Qualite de l'Air: Sommaire des Resultants 1992. Montreal, Quebec.
Zayed, J., (1993). Occupational and environmental exposure of garage workers and taxi drivers to airborne manganese arising from the use of MMT®. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, 55, pp. 53-58.
Toronto Department of Public Health. (1993). Outdoor air quality in Toronto: issues and concerns. Corporation of the City of Toronto.
Forget, E., Courchesne, F., Kennedy, G., & Zayed, J. (1994). Response of the Blue Spruce (Picea pungens) to manganese pollution from MMT®. Water, Air and Soil Pollution, 73, pp. 319-324
Brault, N., Loranger, S., Courchesne, F., Kennedy, G. & Zayed, J. (1994). Bioaccumulation of manganese in plants: influence of MMT® as gasoline additive. Science of the Total Environment, 153, pp. 77-84.
Health Canada. (1994). Risk Assessment for the combustion products of methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT®) in gasoline. Environmental Health Directorate.
Lynam, D.R., Pfeifer, G.D., Ter Haar, G.L., & Fort, B.F. (1994). Exposures to manganese-in-air in an urban environment. In Trace Substances, Environment and Health, pp. 21-29.
Lynam, D.R., Pfeifer, G.D., Fort, B.F., Ter Haar, G.L., & Hollrah, D.P. (1994). Atmospheric exposure to manganese from use of methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT®) performance additive. The Science of the Total Environment 146/147: pp. 103-109.
Loranger, S. & Zayed, J. (1994) Manganese contamination in Montreal in relation to traffic density. Water, Air and Soil Pollution, 74, pp. 385-396.
Pfeifer, G.D., Lynam, D.R., Fort, B.F., & Ter Haar, G.L. (1994). Use of historical metal data to model manganese exposures from MMT® use. In Trace Substances, Environment and Health. pp. 187-195.
United States Environmental Protection Agency. (1994). Fuels and fuel additives; waiver decision/circuit court remand. Federal Register, 59, p. 42227.
United States Environmental Protection Agency. (1994). Reevaluation of inhalation health risks associated with methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT®) in gasoline. Office of Research and Development. EPA 600/R-94/062.Loranger, S. & Zayed, J. (1995). Environmental and occupational exposure to manganese: a multimedia assessment. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 67, pp. 101-110.
Garrison, A.W., Cipollone, M.G., Wolfe, N. L., & Swank, Jr., R. R. (1995). Environmental fate of methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 14, No. 11, pp. 1859-1864.
Yamashita & Vannice, (1996), N2O Decomposition over Manganese Oxides, Journal of Catalysis, 161, pp. 254-262.
Riveros-Rosas, H., Pfeifer, G.D., Lynam, D.R., Pedroza, J.L., Julian-Sanchez, A., Canales, O. & Garfias, J. (1997). Personal exposures to elements in Mexico City Air. Science of the Total Environment 198, pp. 79-96.
Wallace, L. & Slonecker, T. (1997). Ambient air concentration of fine (PM2.5) manganese in U.S. National Parks and California and Canadian Cities: The possible impact of adding MMT® to unleaded gasoline. Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association 47, pp. 642-652.
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). (1998). Toxicological Profile for Manganese and Compounds.
Pellizzari, E. D., Mason, R. E., Clayton, C. A., Thomas, K. W., Cooper, S., Piper, L., Rodes, C., Goldberg, M., Roberts, J., & Michael, L. (1998). Final Report - Manganese exposure study (Toronto). Analytical and Chemical Sciences, Research Triangle Institute. (RTI/6312/02-01 F).
Lynam, D.R., Roos, J.W., Pfeifer, G.D., Fort, B.F., & Pullin, T.G. (1999). Environmental effects and exposure to manganese from use of methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT®) in gasoline. Neurotoxicology. 20 (2-3): pp. 145-150.
Normandin, L., Kennedy, G., & Zayed, J. (1999). Potential of dandelion (Taraxocum Officinale) as a bioindicator of manganese arising from the use of Methylcyclopentadienyl Manganese Tricarbonyl in unleaded gasoline. Science of the Total Environment 239: pp. 165-171.
Pfeifer, G. D., Harrison, R.M. & Lynam, D. R. (1999). Personal exposure to airborne metals in London taxi drivers and office workers in 1995 and 1996. Science of the Total Environment 235, pp. 253-260.
Roos, J.W., Lynam, D.L., Smith, I.L., Pfeifer, G.D. & Reynolds, J.G. (2000) Characterization of combustion products from the fuel additive MMT. Presented at AWMA 93rd Annual Conference and Exhibition, Salt Lake City, June 18-22.
Molders, N., Schilling, P.J., Wong, J., Roos, J.W. & Smith, I.L. (2001). X-ray fluorescence mapping and Micro-XANEX Spectroscopic characterization of exhaust particulates emitted from auto engines burning MMT®-added gasoline." Environmental Science and Technology 35, pp. 3122-3129.
Dorman, D.C.; James, R.A.; Marshall, M.W.; Parkinson, C.U.; Struve, M.F.; Wong, B.A. Pharmacokinetics of Manganese Sulfate in Juvenile Male Rhesus Monkeys Following Sub-Chronic (13-week) Inhalation Exposure. Report to Study Sponsor (Afton Chemical Corp.) 2004c.
The final report to the Alt. Tier II MMT® test titled, “A Report of the Results of Alternative Tier 2 Testing for the Characterization of Particulate from Vehicles Using the Gasoline Additive MMT® in the Fuel”. Submission to the U.S. EPA, February 2006.
Unzelman, G.H. & Michalski, G.W. (1979). Octane improvement economics: Antiknocks and alternatives. (NPRA Paper AM-79-46).
Turner, Mason & Company. (1989). Reduced refinery emissions and costs via HiTEC® 3000 in unleaded gasoline. Appendix 6 of May 9, 1990 Ethyl submission in support of waiver application to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
Hollrah, D.P. & Burns, A.M. (1990). Gasoline blending in the '90's: problems and options. National Petroleum Refiners Association. (NPRA Paper FL-90-114).
Sabotka & Company, Inc. (1990). Analysis of the effects on the refining industry of allowing HiTEC® 3000 as an additive in gasoline.
Turner, Mason & Company. (1991). Study of effects of HiTEC 3000® use on refinery operations. Appendix 14 of the November 26, 1991 Ethyl submission in support of waiver application to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
Hollrah, D.P. & Burns, A.M. (1991, March 11) MMT® increases octane while reducing emissions. Oil and Gas Journal, pp. 86-91.
Hollrah, D.P. & Roos, J.W. (1997). The role of MMT® in producing environmentally clean fuels. Hydrocarbon Engineering, October 1997.
McChesney, J.M. & Burns, A.M. (1999). Challenges to Gasoline Blending. (NPRA Paper FL-87-99).
Cunningham, L.J. & Roos, J.W. (2001) Reformulating Gasoline for Lower Emissions. World Refining, November.
Roos, J.W., Cunningham, L.J., Grande, D.G., & Hollrah, D.P. (2002). Reformulating gasoline for lower emissions using the fuel additive MMT®. Society of Automotive Engineers. (SAE Paper 2002-01-2893).
Xiong, C., Liu, H., Wei, R. & Lu, C. (2002) Investigation on the stability of MMT® anti-knock additive. Society of Automotive Engineers. (SAE Paper 2002-01-2895).
Faggan, J. E., Bailie, J. D., Desmond, E. A., & Lenane, D. L. (1975). An evaluation of manganese as an antiknock in unleaded gasoline. Society of Automotive Engineers. (SAE Paper 750025).
Lenane, D.L., “MMT® - A Further Evaluation,” SAE 770656 (1977).
Furey, R.L., and Summers, J.C., “How MMT Causes Plugging of Monolithic Converters,” SAE 780004 (1978).
Lenane, D. L. (1978). Effect of MMT® on emissions from production cars. Society of Automotive Engineers. (SAE Paper 780003).
Benson, J. D., (1979). Results of Coordinating Research Council MMT® field-test program. Society of Automotive Engineers. (SAE Paper 790706).
Williamson, W. B., Gandhi, H. S., & Weaver, E. E. (1982). Effects of fuel additive MMT® on contaminant retention and catalyst performance. Society of Automotive Engineers. (SAE Paper 821193).
Hinkamp, J. B. (1983, September 12). Study rates alcohols as octane blending agents. Oil and Gas Journal, pp. 170-178.
Lenane, D. L. (1990). Effect of MMT® on emission control systems. Society of Automotive Engineers. (SAE Paper 902097).
Hollrah, D. P. & Burns, A. M. (1991, March 11) MMT® increases octane while reducing emissions. Oil and Gas Journal, pp. 86-91.
Hurley, R.G., Hansen, L.A., Guttridge, D.L., Gandhi, H.S., Hammerle, R.H., and Matzo, A.D., “The Effect on Emissions and Emission Component Durability by the Fuel Additive Methylcyclopentadienyl Manganese Tricarbonyl,” SAE 912437 (1991).
Cunningham, L.J., Hollrah, D.P., & Kulinowski, A.M. (1992). “The Use of Fuel Additives to Control Deposits in Gasoline Engines,” Proceedings of 1992 Japan Petroleum Institute Conference, Tokyo.
Hubbard, C.P., Hepburn, J.S., and Gandhi, “The Effect of MMT on the OBD-II Catalyst Efficiency Monitor,” SAE 932855 (1993).
Lenane, D. L., Fort, B. F., Ter Haar, G. L., Lynam, D. R. & Pfeifer, G. D. (1994). Emission results from a 48-car test evaluation of MMT® performance additive. The Science of the Total Environment 146/147: 245-251.
Aradi, A. A., Roos, J.W., Fort, Jr., B. F., Lee, E. E. & Davidson, R. I. (1994). The physical and chemical effect of manganese oxides on automobile catalytic converters. Society of Automotive Engineers. (SAE Paper 940747).
Roos, J. W. (1994). The effect of manganese oxides on OBD-II catalytic converter monitoring. Society of Automotive Engineers. (SAE Paper 942056).
Roos, J. W. (1995). Impact of fuels on diagnostic performance. SAE OBD-II Update Topical Technical Workshop, September 7, 1995, Traverse City, MI: Society of Automotive Engineers.
Koike, N., & Odaka, M. (1996) Methane and nitrous oxide emission characteristics from automobiles. (SAE Paper 960061).
Roos,J.W., Scull, H.M., Dykes, K.L., Hotchkiss, A.R., Grande, D.G., Lenane, D.L. (1997). Evaluation of On-Board Diagnostic Systems and the Impact of Gasoline Containing MMT®. (SAE Paper 972849).
Roos, J.W., Lenane, D.L., Dykes, K.L., Scull, H.M., & Openshaw, M.J. (2000). A systems approach to improved exhaust catalyst durability: The role of the MMT® fuel additive. Society of Automotive Engineers. (SAE Paper 2000-01-1880).
Meffert, M.W., Lenane, D.L., Openshaw, M., Roos, J.W. (2000). Analysis of Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Light Duty Passenger Cars. Society of Automotive Engineers. (SAE Paper 2000-01-1952).
Hutcheson, R.C. (2000) “Valve Seat Recession – An Independent Review of Existing Data.” Society of Automotive Engineers. (SAE Paper 2000-01-2015).
Aradi, A.A., Colucci, J.W., Scull, H.M. & Openshaw, M.J. (2000). “A Study of Fuel Additives for Direct Injection Gasoline (DIG) Injector Deposit Control”. Society of Automotive Engineers. (SAE paper 2000-01-2020).
Roos, J. W., Hollrah, D. P., Guinther, G.H. & Cunningham, L. J. (2002). A peer-reviewed critical analysis of SAE Paper 2002-01-2894 "The impact of MMT® gasoline additive on exhaust emissions and fuel economy of low emission vehicles (LEV). Society of Automotive Engineers. (SAE Paper 2002-01-2903).
Alliance of Automobile Manufacturers, “MMT Program Reports” , July 29,2002
Guinther, G. H., Human, D. M., Miller, K. T., Roos, J. W., & Schwab S. D. (2002). The role that methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT®) can play in improving low-temperature performance of diesel particulate traps. Society of Automotive Engineers. (SAE Paper 2002-01-2728).
Benson, J. D. & Dana, D. (2002). The impact of MMT® gasoline additive on exhaust emissions and fuel economy of low emission vehicles (LEV). Society of Automotive Engineers. (SAE Paper 2002-01-2894). (See Ethyl SAE paper 2002-01-2903).
Cunningham, L.J., Hollrah, D.P., Newkirk, M.S., Roos, J.W., and Van Landingham, C., “AAM/AIAM Fleet Test Program: Analysis and Comments,” SAE 2003-01-3287 (2003).
McCabe, R.W., DiCicco, D.M., Guo, G., and Hubbard, C.P., “Effects of MMT® Fuel Additive on Emission System Components: Comparison of Clear- and MMT®-Fueled Escort Vehicles from the Alliance Study,” SAE Paper 2004-01-1084 (2004).
Boone, W.P., Hubbard, C.P., Soltis, R.E., Ding, Y., and Che, A. “Effect of MMT® Fuel Additive on emission System Components: Detailed Parts Analysis from Clear and MMT®-Fueled Escort Vehicles from the Alliance Study,” SAE Paper 2005-01-1108 (2005).
Cunningham, L.J., Newkirk, M.S., Roos, J.W., Meffert, M.W. and Openshaw, M.J., “Assessing High-Cell Density Catalyst Durability with MMT Fuel Additive in Severe Driving Conditions”. SAE Paper 2005-01-3840
General Review of Emission-Related Notices of Defect and Recalls (Canada and the U.S.), Environment Canada (January 31, 2005)
Zhang, Y., et al, “Emissions Effect of MMT® for Light-Duty Vehicles,” Research of Environmental Sciences (Chinese), Vol, 19, No. 5, pp. 19-24 (2006).
Roos J.W.; Meffert M.W.; Cunningham L.J.; Hotchkiss A.R.; Openshaw, M.J. American and Canadian Experience With and Without mmt®. SAE 2006-01-3405.
Meffert M.W.; Quinn T.G.; Guinther G.H.; Hollrah, D.P. Evaluation of US and Canadian I and M Data. SAE 2006-01-3406.
Roos J.W.; Meffert M.W.; Cunningham L.J. The interaction of mmt® combustion products with the exhaust catalyst face. SAE 2007-01-1078.
Cunningham, L.J., et al, “In-Use Emissions Compliance of 2005 and 2006 Model Year Taxis in Beijing, China, 18th CRC On-Road Vehicle Emissions Workshop, San Diego (March 31, 2008)
Li, Meng-liang, Li, Jing-yuan, Xu, Yue-yun, “Research on Emission Status and Influence Factor of In-Use Vehicle,” Proceedings of the 14th SAE China Fuels and Lubes Meeting, pp. 298-303, August 2010.
Li-Mengliang, “Survey and Analysis of In-Use Vehicle Emissions Performance in China,” Asia Fuels and Lubes Conference, Singapore, March 2010
Shao, Huifang F., Plaatje, Anna, Meffert, Michael. Proof-of-Principle Investigation into the Use of Custom Rapid Aging Procedures to Evaluate and Demonstrate Catalyst Durability. SAE 2010-01-2269
Chen, J., Shuai, S., and Xiao, J., “Experimental Study of Influence of Gasoline Fuel with MMT on Aging Performance of Three-Way Catalysts,” Conference of the Oil Products and Clean Fuels (OPCF) Branch of the Chinese Society for Internal Combustion Engines, Beijing, China, May 21-22, 2011.