Latest Global Science on HiTEC® 3000 Series of mmt® Fuel Additive
Afton's HiTEC 3000 Series of mmt® fuel additives increase octane levels and helps refiners to beneficially alter fuel composition, allowing them to meet the environmental and fuel quality specifications that are so crucial to reducing emissions and energy consumption. Here you will find recent research on HiTEC 3000 Series of mmt® fuel additive categorized by country. For more information on mmt® fuel additives, view the full research bibliography.
HiTEC 3000 Series of mmt® fuel additive is permitted for use in gasoline in Argentina up to the specified treat level of 18 mg Mn/liter.
1. 2010 Argentina Fuels Survey
The use of mmt® enables higher volumes of low octane refinery streams to be blended into the gasoline pool than would otherwise be feasible without the additive, which serves to increase the total gasoline volume available to the market.
By introducing streams without benzene or aromatics, the average benzene content of the formulation is lower in gasoline formulated with mmt®.
Gasoline formulated with mmt® used less IsoParaffins and ethers.
These gasolines also allow more normal Paraffins in the formulation.
(Source: Lic Eduardo Barreiro’s article published in December 2010 issue of Petrotecnia)
2. Gasoline study 2009: Use of additives and octane enhancers in Argentina.
A national sampling program was conducted in 2009 with the goal of analyzing the current octane market situation in Argentina. The sampling program included:
Sampling performed by a recognized surveyor, Inspectorate Argentina.
Analysis conducted by a recognized independent laboratory, Esei.
Manganese content tested in accordance with ASTM D3831.
No sample was found to have more than 18 mg Mn /liter gasoline.
The Super gasoline samples that contained mmt® had on average 30% less benzene than the samples without mmt®.
(Benzene is a recognized carcinogen, and its content in gasoline is regulated by most worldwide gasoline specifications.)
The use of HiTEC 3000 Series of mmt® fuel additive is permitted in Australian fuels up to the treat level of 18 mg Mn/litre.
1. The Australian National Industrial Chemical Notification & Assessment Scheme assessment
In 2003, (NICNAS), in conjunction with Environment Australia, conducted a risk assessment to determine if the use of mmt® as an anti‐valve seat recession additive in lead replacement petrol would present a risk to public health.
On the basis of the NICNAS review, Environment Australia permitted use of HiTEC 3000 Series of mmt® fuel additive in lead replacement petrol up to 18 mg Mn/litre.View Report >>
2. Environment Australia assessment
In November 2000, Environment Australia conducted an assessment of the additives and products used to increase octane in petrol.
With regard to HiTEC 3000 Series of mmt® fuel additive the report concluded “Based on the information at hand, including the in‐principle support given for mmt in the literature review and analysis report, the Commonwealth proposes not to regulate the use of mmt in Australian petrol at this time.” View Report >>
HiTEC 3000 Series of mmt® fuel additive is permitted in Canadian gasoline regulations up to the specified treat level of 18 mg Mn/litre.
1. Health Canada risk assessment
In May 2010, Health Canada released a health risk assessment for inhaled manganese, covering manganese from all sources.
As a result of 2010’s risk assessment, a new manganese reference concentration number (RfC) of 0.05 μg/m3 at PM3.5 was established.
During widespread and long sustained use of HiTEC 3000 Series of mmt® fuel additive manganese levels in major Canadian cities remained below this new RfC, with typical personal exposures being measured at 0.008 μg/m3.
Regarding HiTEC 3000 Series of mmt® fuel additive Health Canada did not change its 1994 conclusions (re-affirmed in 2001) that “airbone manganese resulting from the combustion of methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT) is not entering the Canadian environment in quantities or under conditions that may constitute a health risk”.
Pellizzari, E. D., Mason, R. E., Clayton, C. A., Thomas, K. W., Cooper, S., Piper, L., Rodes, C., Goldberg, M., Roberts, J., & Michael, L. (1998). Final Report - Manganese exposure study (Toronto). Analytical and Chemical Sciences, Research Triangle Institute. (RTI/6312/02-01 F).
4. Analysis of in-use vehicle data
Vehicle Durability Testing in 2007 Model Year Vehicles Certified to North American Tier 2 Emission Standards, Afton Chemical Corporation Technical Report (2010)
General Review of Emission-Related Notices of Defect and Recalls (Canada and the U.S.), Environment Canada (January 31, 2005). Environment Canada stated, “no Notice of Defect was found to be potentially caused by mmt®.” (Canada is taking no action to ban HiTEC 3000 Series of mmt® fuel additive.)
HiTEC 3000 Series of mmt® fuel additive has been an important octane tool in China for over a decade where it is permitted in National Chinese gasoline regulations. From the effective date (2014) of China’s National Phase IV specification for gasoline, mmt will be permitted for use up to the specified treat level of 8 mg Mn/liter.
Influence of Gasoline Fuel with mmt® on Catalyst Performance
Exploratory investigation by the Laboratory of Automotive Safety and Energy at Tsinghua University into the interaction of combustion products from mmt®-containing gasoline with high cell density (600 cpsi) catalysts during severe operating conditions, typical of those used for accelerated catalyst aging during the vehicle durability demonstration process
Use of high temperature, steady-state aging cycles is not representative of deposition phenomena that occurs during real-world operating conditions
Results from additional catalyst characterization experiments showed that there was no substantial correlation between catalyst conversion efficiency performance and the presence of manganese oxide deposits on the catalyst face
Study of China Automotive Technology and Research Center (CATARC)
Investigation into the durability of modern vehicle emission control systems in China during real-world use
Results support the conclusion that emission systems deterioration is caused by thermal catalyst degradation and engine oil poisoning related to vehicle use
Emission system deterioration was not associated with catalyst manganese concentration
Vehicles, including high-mileage vehicles that fail to meet the in-use emission standard do so because of vehicle use that causes thermal degradation and engine-oil derived poisoning of catalyst systems. These failures are not related to fuel quality
(Source: 16th Annual Fuels & Lubes Asia Conference, March 4-5, 2010, Singapore)
Beijing Petroleum Society study of mmt
A comprehensive study of HiTEC 3000 Series of mmt® fuel additive and its impact on energy and environmental savings was conducted by an expert refinery team under the auspices of Beijing Petroleum Society. This study developed current real world savings for mmt® when used across China’s refining system at 16 mg Mn/l and showed significant per annum reductions in CO2 reduction and savings in crude oil consumption.
Petroleum and Petrochemical Today, Number 12, Volume 16, 2008
Ministry of Environmental Protection (Previously known as SEPA)
Comprehensive field trial with Euro IV vehicles conducted by the State Environment Protection Agency (now Ministry of Environmental Protection)
Final report confirms compatibility of mmt® at 18mgMn/l to Euro IV durability and emission requirements
(Source: Yan, Z., et al, Research of Environmental Sciences Vol. 19 No. 5, 2006)
The use of HiTEC 3000 Series of mmt® fuel additive in fuel has been permitted without any restriction up to 1st of January 2011.
The new Fuel Quality Directive places temporary limits of 6mg/l from 2011 and of 2mg/l from 2014, pending a risk assessment to be completed by end 2012.
Such risk assessment is currently on-going
HiTEC 3000 Series of mmt® fuel additive is permitted in conventional U.S. gasoline up to a specified treat level of 8.3 mg Mn/litre
1. Data available in U.S. Tier II certified vehicles
Studies of the impact of mmt on the operation of the major components of vehicle engine and emission control systems demonstrate that there is no material difference when using gasoline with and without mmt.
SAE (Society of automotive engineers international) papers available
a.2006-01-3405 and 2006-01-3406
2. US EPA Clean Air Act program
Under the US Clean Air Act, EPA (Environmental protection Agency) has required testing of all fuels and fuel additives, including HiTEC 3000 Series of mmt® fuel additive.
All required health testing is now complete and submitted to EPA which recommended the data meets the health study objectives. Afton understands that the Agency will take some time to formally reach conclusions from the study.
The goal of this study is to remove uncertainties associated with assessing risk from inhaled manganese.
The testing and subsequent modeling was overseen by a Technical Advisory Panel, made up of independent experts, to ensure the highest quality in the testing process.
The result of the testing has shown that the body has mechanisms to handle a wide range of manganese intake, whether from inhalation or ingestion.
While these mechanisms can be overwhelmed if exposures to manganese are very high, the testing confirms that the body can safely handle inhaled manganese at and well above exposures at environmental levels, whether mmt® is used or not. (studies show that HiTEC 3000 Series of mmt® fuel additive does not measurably increase ambient manganese in the air)
All the information related to the EPA program can be found on www.regulations.gov, docket number OAR‐2004‐0074