To protect transmission components, OEMs require that automatic transmission fluids (ATF) be formulated specifically for the transmissions they are designed to protect. That’s the best way to deliver the right balance of friction, wear resistance, oxidation resistance, aeration control, and durability. All of these considerations go into formulating an ATF that optimizes performance and helps ensure maximum transmission life.
Because an ATF affects every one of the hundreds of components in a transmission, OEMs issue licenses to additive and oil companies for fluids they have rigorously evaluated and approved.
OEM-licensed ATFs are balanced to deliver protection to ALL transmission parts regardless of material composition (e.g. steel, lead, brass, copper, plastic, etc.). ATF tests ensure that fluid does not interact negatively with any transmission material.
The ATF market has changed a great deal over the years. At one time, a vast majority of vehicle transmission requirements were satisfied with a single transmission fluid. But transmissions have become much more complex, and so have the choices of fluids necessary to protect them. OEMs consider many different performance specifications and parameters before licensing an ATF.
Selling only licensed ATF products gives all blenders an opportunity to compete head-to-head in the very complex ATF market, and it provides a strong competitive advantage over companies that sell unlicensed products.
LSPI, also known as stochastic pre-ignition (SPI), megaknock, superknock and deto-knock, most commonly occurs at low speeds during a period of rapid acceleration. A premature ignition in the combustion chamber, generated prior to the spark plug firing, causes an abnormal combustion and high cylinder pressure. The LSPI event results in a loud knocking sound from the uncontrolled pressure rise in the cylinder. In some cases, a single LSPI event is sufficient to cause severe engine damage.
Until LSPI is rectified, automakers may be restricted in their ability to maximize the performance and fuel efficiency of their advanced engine designs, creating a barrier to meet tomorrow’s demanding fuel-performance requirements. For additional background information about LSPI, click here.
The standard method for determining the cetane number of a diesel fuel is the ASTM D613 method which uses the Cooperative Fuel Research Committee (CFR) engine technique. The procedure, which was introduced in 1941, determines the cetane number of a diesel fuel comparing its ignition quality with two reference blends of known cetane number under the same operating conditions. The method uses a single-cylinder CFR engine operated under specified conditions and the cetane number scale is based on the two reference fuels. ASTM D613 has been used for many years but is known to be a time consuming test of limited precision. It also requires skilled operators.
Due to the shortcomings of the CFR engine test refineries have developed prediction equations known as cetane index. Cetane index is a convenient tool by which refineries can ensure their fuel meets the cetane number specification. The cetane index prediction equation is based upon the density and mid-boiling point of the ASTM D86 distillation. Although cetane index gives a reasonable prediction of cetane number it cannot be accepted as a true measure of the cetane number of a diesel fuel. Consequently there has, for a long time, been a requirement for a more convenient and more precise alternative to the CFR procedure for cetane number determination.
Cetane number is a measure of the compression ignition behaviour of a diesel fuel. The higher the cetane
number the shorter the ignition delay period, a diesel fuel having a high cetane number has good ignition
properties. Increasing the natural cetane level of a fuel with cetane improver additives has a positive impact
Refinery economics by offering a cost effective route to specification compliance
No, the move to GHS SDS and labels does not cause Afton’s products to change. There is no change to the chemistry, formulations, hazards, or performance of our products. The change is to how OSHA and other regulatory authorities require us to classify and label our products and how we communicate the hazards.
GHS is not being applied identically in all countries. GHS uses a building block approach and various governments have chosen to introduce some blocks of GHS and not others. One example is that the US and Canada have chosen not to introduce the environmental building block. That said, GHS is being introduced by many countries around the world and although not perfect, represents the most international approach to the classification of chemicals there has ever been.
GHS stands for the “Globally Harmonized System of Classification & Labeling”. This is an international approach to hazard communication that was developed by the United Nations (UN). It is a system that defines and classifies the hazards of chemicals and communicates health, safety and environmental information on labels and Safety Data Sheets (SDSs). These labels and SDSs need to contain specified information.
To provide harmonized criteria for classification/ hazard communication measures for different target audiences, including consumers, workers and emergency responders thereby improving hazard communication which should lead to reduced injuries and illnesses
GHS classifications already appear on most of Afton’s SDS which are in a historical 16 section “global format”. Afton will issue further SDS and hazcom labels as necessary ahead of the various national regulatory deadlines.
Yes, this is Afton’s intention. Unlike the US, GHS has not yet completed the legislative process in Canada and so it may be that Afton issues US compliant GHS SDS first and adds additional Canadian GHS information at a later stage.
At Afton Chemical we are passionate about finding solutions for our customers. We have a broad range of solutions for a wide range of Industrial applications and suggest that you contact your Afton Chemical representative for specific application advice or contact us via our website.
Afton chemical have developed a range of comprehensive guides to a range Industrial applications including Industrial Gear, Grease and Turbine applications. Please contact your Afton Chemical representative or register your interest in specific guides on our MICROBOTZ™site.
Finding zinc in equipment where zinc free lubricant has been used is a common occurrence. It can come from a number of sources such as:
Galvanised steel components
Zinc leaching from brass components
Residual system lubricant when switching from zinc to zinc free lubricants
It is extremely unusual for a lubricant classed as zinc free to contain zinc, as modern quality control procedures will ensure that the the correct production and flushing regimes are used to prevent zinc contamination.
Tackifiers are typically used in vertical machine tool slideway application to enhance adhesion properties of the lubricant to the slideway surface. In addition lubricants containing tackifiers may show enhanced performance in applications with a tendency to high levels of water or coolant wash off, effectively prolonging the life of the slideway lubricant.
Tackifiers can also be used in other applications such as preventing lubricant fling-off in wire ropes and chain lubricants, as well as preventing lubricant misting in rockdrills.
In machine tools, a spindle is a rotating axis of the machine, which often has a shaft at its heart. The shaft itself is called a spindle, but also, in shop-floor practice, the word often is used metonymically to refer to the entire rotary unit, including not only the shaft itself, but its bearings and anything attached to it, such as a chuck.
For spindles that are used in a machine shop type environment, then any of our R&O additives are appropriate. In some cases, the customer may want a spindle oil with antiwear performance. Such oils are sometimes used in less expensive or older equipment, particularly where sleeve bearings are used. In this instance customers can use one of our EP turbine packages, or top treat an R&O package with an antiwear additive such as HiTEC® 511T.
The additive used for spindle oils must provide adequate levels of rust and corrosion performance, as well as oxidation stability.
Afton has a range of R&O additive packages such as HiTEC 2607 and HiTEC 566 that can be used in spindle oil application. HiTEC 1505 would be a suitable solution for applications requiring EP/antiwear characteristics.
Combining several performance attributes into one multipurpose additive system is an efficient and increasingly popular approach to streamlining your multipurpose grease portfolio. The right system can save time and money while maintaining your flexibility in creating a premium grease formulation.
Multipurpose grease additives benefit the grease manufacture process by:
Reducing multiple component inventories
Introducing a single stage additive introduction process to blending
Ensuring consistent product quality
Afton Chemical has a range of multipurpose Multifunctional Componentry that provides differentiation and defined performance, please contact us to discuss your specific needs.
Industrial lubricants are usually designed around the choice of additive system alongside a choice of base oil that will complement the desired performance characteristics.
Conversely, choosing the wrong type of base oil can cause issues with fluid performance, often manifesting itself in the form of a hazy lubricant and quickly showing issues in parameters such as foam and water separation.
There is a wide choice of base oils available for formulating industrial lubricants, examples of the most commonly used base oils by application type are detailed in the table below.
Water ingress into the turbine sump oil cause an emulsion resembling a milkshake, preventing the lubricants ability to protect the critical bearings and control valves, plugging filters and damaging bearings leading to turbine failure and shutdown. Water ingress is more common in steam turbine systems, but can also manifest itself in gas turbines through cooling systems and condensation formation when the turbine fluctuates in temperature through start-stop operation.
Often this problem is resolved by replacing the lubricant, but this is a short term fix as the problem usually returns quickly. Sometimes a demulsifier top treat is added to the system to resolve the issue, but again this is a short term fix.
A turbine lubricant formulated with a proven additive system and good selection of base oil will provide a lubricant designed to retain its performance attributes, including water separation, throughout its service life will eliminate this type of reoccurring issue.
Turbine lubricants are a critical component of a turbine. Any deterioration in performance could lead to turbine shutdown, and potentially create a huge bill in terms of equipment repairs and lost revenue.
With this in mind, the careful selection of additive chemistry is a critical stage in the formulation of turbine lubricant.
A good turbine lubricant must:
Create a hydrodynamic oil film to prevent destructive metal-to-metal contact between the turbine shaft and bearings
Protect internal surfaces from rust and corrosion
Quickly transport excess heat away from bearings to the oil coolers and maintain even heat distribution
Transport particulate material to filters for removal
Transport moisture to the dryers
Prevent by-products of oxidation being deposited on any lubricated parts
Neutralize acid by-products of oil oxidation
Protect any integral gear surfaces and bearings from wear
Act as the hydraulic control fluid to control the turbine’s speed and power
Lubricate oil circulation and jacking (lift) pumps
Protect all parts of the turbine system under all operating conditions from cold start to hot shut down
Good turbine lubricant additive systems are formulated to provide maximum protection to critical turbine systems, with emphasis on control of oxidation and its by products.
Zinc additive chemistry typically zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP) have traditionally been use as an antiwear additive in hydraulic lubricants. It is often thought the zinc component of the ZDDP offers the antiwear protection; however this is not the case. It is the phosphorus containing component which forms a surface layer which, under pressure, forms a phosphorous glass on the metal surface that provides antiwear protection.
In zinc-free anti-wear hydraulic oils an alternative carrier delivers the phosphorous compound to the metal surface allowing the formulation of antiwear hydraulic oils without the presence of zinc.
Hydraulic lubricants based on zinc additive technology have been the mainstay of hydraulic circuits for decades and remain a popular choice today. This said the number hydraulic lubricants containing alternative (and often better) zinc free chemistries are on the rise.
Compatibility of lubricants with gear box seals is required to avoid both lubricant leaking from the gear box, as well as to prevent external contaminants entering the gear box. Both static seal immersion tests and dynamic rotating shaft seal evaluations are performed to ensure lubricant compatibility, on a wide variety of seal materials. Commonly nitrile (NBR) and fluoroelastomer (FKM) materials are found in the gear box, and tests focus attention on these materials.
STATIC SEALS TESTING
Static seal tests reflect the lubricant interaction with a non-dynamic seal such as a casing gasket. A typical test method used for static seals testing both by OEMs and in industry standards is ISO 1817. In this test method, test samples of a specified shape and thickness are first cut from a sheet of seal material, and examined for:
Elongation at break
Following immersion in lubricant for a specified temperature and duration, the seal material is re-examined and the change in these parameters reported.
Most specifications define maximum and minimum change limits for these seal characteristics.
DYNAMIC SEAL TESTING
Dynamic seals testing examines compatibility of lubricants with radial shaft seals and is designed to examine seal compatibility in an environment closely related to that of a gear box input and output shafts. An example test method for dynamic seals testing is DIN 3761, the test method used by seals manufacturer Freudenburg. In this test method either two or three radial shaft seals (Simmerrings) are tested depending on the seal type under examination.
The test chamber is filled with lubricant to half way up the shaft. The shaft is rotated, at a speed, and time period with the oil held at a set temperature dependent on the seal and lubricant type under examination. Shaft speed is typically in the range of 2000 – 3000 rpm, with test duration being between 768 hours and 1008 hours. Typical test temperatures are 80°C for NBR seals and 90°C to 110°C for FKM seals.
At the end of the test the seal will usually undergo a visual examination of the radial shaft seal lip by microscope, as well as documentation if leakage has occurred, and measurement of running track width at sealing edge, depth of shaft run in, radial force, and interference.
Each OEM has their own specific limits and requirements for this test and in general results are best discussed with the OEM.
A good additive system will enable an industrial gear lubricant to protect both dynamic and static seals from damage and prevent excessive swelling or shrinkage that could lead to lubricant leakage during use.
Water or particulate contamination can be potentially serious, but the effect of contamination depends largely on its nature:
'Soft’ particulates such as sludge are less likely to cause wear or direct damage to metal parts, but these can clog filters and lubrication systems causing insufficient flow and lubricant starvation
'Hard’ particles such as rust and abrasive wear products can be abrasive, causing a high rate of wear to gears, bearings and other metal parts
Water can cause corrosion and oxidation of metallic parts, and can also create reaction products (e.g. acids) which affect the system adversely
A lubricant formulated with a good additive system will help reduce the causes of contamination, as well as improve filterability to further reduce the presence of soft and hard particulate matter. Contamination can be further mitigated by proper filtration, sealing and maintenance procedures.
Industrial gear lubricants also protect gears from damage by:
Inhibiting foam formation
Clearing away contaminants or wear particles
Preventing lacquer or carbon deposits
Resisting oxidation and keeps degradation products in suspension
Lubricating and protecting seals and bearings
Gear lubricants stand apart from other industrial lubricants because of their ability to carry extreme pressure (EP) loads with minimal gear damage. Good industrial gear lubricants can achieve a failure load stage 14 in the FZG scuffing test (which is an industry standard measure of wear), near the upper limit of test capability.
The lubricant chemistry is a critical component in any industrial gearbox, but its vital role is often underestimated. A well formulated industrial gear lubricant will protect the gearbox from the effects of high loads, heat and air entrainment, while also protecting seals, coatings and other plastic materials from chemical attack. The choice of lubricant chemistry can make the difference between reliable performance and equipment failure.
Afton Chemical is the industry leader in Business Continuity Planning. Our process is focused on managing and mitigating the impact of supply disruptions. Strong security of supply starts at the initial development process of every new product we launch. In addition, Afton performs raw material and service provider assessments to evaluate the quality and robustness of their supply chains and business continuity planning processes.
Afton conducts a proactive preventative maintenance program at our manufacturing plants and our strong inventory management systems insures that our plants operate on schedule and Afton maintains supply to our customers.
Emulsifiers enable two immiscible fluids to form a mixture called an emulsion. They work by reducing the surface tension of water to facilitate thorough mixing. Water and oil mixtures are often used as lubricants because they are low cost, easy to dispose of, and have fire retardant properties.
Rust and corrosion inhibitors provide a barrier between the metal surface and harmful elements. Some inhibitors neutralize acids, others form protective films. Basic detergents are excellent rust and corrosion inhibitors, because they protect in both ways.
Most lubricant applications involve agitation, which traps air in the lubricant and encourages the formation of foam. When foaming becomes excessive, lubricating qualities are less effective, and the result is oxidation and possible cavitation over time.
To combat this problem, Afton’s foam inhibitors alter the surface tension of the oil and help to weaken the structure of air bubbles. The result is better lubricating qualities and reduced maintenance.